Ever for the reason that Gaia satellite tv for pc started mapping the Milky Means in three dimensions with the best precision but, we have been studying loads about our house galaxy’s violent previous.
The scrappy cannibal has collided with, and subsumed, a number of different galaxies over its 13.6-billion yr lifespan. The most important of those, the Gaia-Enceladus dwarf galaxy (AKA the Gaia Sausage), passed off round 10 billion years in the past, and was regarded as liable for a curious function of the Milky Means’s construction known as the thick disk.
Now, nevertheless, it seems that this is probably not the case. Astronomers have studied one other galaxy with a thick disk, and decided that its evolution wasn’t a cataclysmic accident, however only a fairly regular approach for spiral galaxies to develop.
“Our observations point out that the Milky Means’s skinny and thick disks did not come about due to a big mash-up, however a sort-of ‘default’ path of galaxy formation and evolution,” mentioned astronomer Nicholas Scott of the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in three Dimensions (ASTRO 3D) and the College of Sydney in Australia.
“From these outcomes we predict galaxies with the Milky Means’s explicit constructions and properties might be described because the ‘regular’ ones.”
It is best to grasp the thick and skinny disks for those who consider the Milky Means a bit like a burger. The skinny disc, which is about 400 light-years thick and incorporates fuel, mud and stars, is analogous to the burger patty; the thick disc, which extends to 1,000 light-years and incorporates solely stars, is just like the burger bun.
The skinny disk is the place you will discover all of the youthful stars, richer in metals, though it incorporates stars of all ages. The thick disk is extra sparsely populated, and incorporates solely stars older than about 10 billion years.
This function is barely seen in some spiral galaxies, and astronomers do not actually know the way they received there, however based mostly on Gaia information, a crew of astronomers thought they’d figured it out. They traced the motions of clusters of stars within the Milky Means’s halo, and their chemical compositions, and located they’d originated outdoors the galaxy. Modelling then recommended that the galactic merger that delivered these stars to the Milky Means additionally heated the pre-existing skinny disk, inflating it right into a thicker one.
Though we have now seen different spiral galaxies with thick disks, it had been inconceivable to inform if these constructions had the identical star distribution because the Milky Means. Enter a spiral galaxy known as UGC 10738, positioned 320 million light-years away.
You may inform roughly how previous a star is predicated on its chemical composition. Youthful stars have extra metals in them than older ones, since these components did not exist within the galaxy till a technology or two of stars got here alongside to supply them by way of the nuclear fusion of lighter components.
The chemical compositions of stars will also be learn of their gentle spectrum – some wavelengths are brighter or dimmer, relying on which components are current.
Particular person stars cannot actually be studied in distant galaxies; they’re too far-off to resolve with our present technological capabilities. What we will do is examine the sunshine coming from totally different areas, and confirm what sorts of stars are in these areas as a inhabitants.
That is what makes UGC 10738 such an excellent laboratory for learning a thick disk. Its edge is dealing with us, giving us a really clear, clear view of the skinny and thick disk constructions – we will really make out the burger and the bun, and separate the sunshine from every part. That is what Scott’s crew did, utilizing the European Southern Observatory’s highly effective Very Giant Telescope in Chile.
“Utilizing an instrument known as the multi-unit spectroscopic explorer, or MUSE, we had been capable of assess the steel ratios of the celebs in its thick and skinny discs,” mentioned astronomer Jesse van de Sande of ASTRO 3D and the College of Sydney.
“They had been just about the identical as these within the Milky Means – historical stars within the thick disc, youthful stars within the skinny one. We’re another galaxies to ensure, however that is fairly robust proof that the 2 galaxies developed in the identical approach.”
This does not imply that the Milky Means hasn’t engaged in a little bit of a combat with different galaxies, and it definitely doesn’t suggest the Gaia Sausage merger by no means passed off (there’s loads of different proof for that encounter). Nevertheless it does appear to counsel that the Gaia Sausage wasn’t liable for puffing up the thick disk.
“It was thought that the Milky Means’s skinny and thick disks shaped after a uncommon violent merger, and so most likely would not be present in different spiral galaxies,” Scott mentioned.
“Our analysis reveals that is most likely improper, and it developed ‘naturally’ with out catastrophic interventions. This implies Milky Means-type galaxies are most likely quite common. It additionally means we will use current very detailed observations of the Milky Means as instruments to higher analyze way more distant galaxies which, for apparent causes, we will not see as effectively.”
Whereas that places us again a bit of methods in figuring out what did puff up the Milky Means’s thick disk, it brings us ahead in our examine of thick disks and the evolution of spiral galaxies as a complete.
Now that the crew has demonstrated that it is potential to spatially resolve chemical distributions of different galaxies, they plan to use their strategies to a statistically vital pattern of comparable galaxies to see how effectively their findings maintain up.
The analysis has been printed in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.